Sunday, 20 October 2013



Editors note 
 The higher education sector focuses on post graduation studies, research and publication. Francis Bacon says “Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.” Education makes man accurate, subtle, objective and worldly wise. That is education emancipates one from darkness to light. “Reading is to mind what exercise is to body.” Education prunes our thoughts and natural abilities. Our Universities promote research programs with the view that it may be useful for the society. It is put forward by our Universities that a researcher should publish articles in an authentic journal.
It was in 2009 a group of teachers came up with a unique concept of launching an ideal journal KIRANAVALI . Ever since its first publication a wide range of research papers in Sanskrit and allied Subjects have been published. Thus it has been a boon for the academic community.

Īśa Upaniṣad and Rāmāyaṇa


Itihāsa, Purāṇa and smṛti texts are known as Upabṛhma¸as, which are meant for the correct understanding of Vedas. One could not understand the true meaning of any part of the Vedas unless he studies the complete vedic texts. How can one interpret a passage of a book properly by simply going through that passage only and not the whole text? But Vedas are countless and we cannot study them all in our life span. To overcome this problem, the Upabṛhmaṇas texts arose to help us in understanding them. The ancient great sages, with their mastery over Vedas gave the essence of them in short form of these kind of texts for the sake of mankind and with the aid of them only, Vedas should be interpreted, says Mahabharata (Ādi parva 1-290). Among them, Smṛti texts stand for karma section of Vedas and Itihāsa and Purāṇas are for later section or jñāna portion. Now this paper is on how Rāmāyaṇa, one of the two great Itihāsas helps in interpreting Īśa Upaniṣad. 

‘Bhadrakalikalam’- a Reminiscence of ‘Dhuli Chitra’: A study


In Kerala Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is a very popular form of ritualistic art among the ritualistic form of art performed by all class of people. Currently it exists as a kind of floor painting which is generally created by the Non-Brahmin class of people to satisfy their urge to worship the ‘Shakti’, one of the most important cults in Hinduism. The Bhadrakali ‘kalam’was basically a kind of art of the backward castes of the Hindus who were restricted to enter the temples by the upper castes. The educated village folks who are mostly farmers or labors by profession found this alternative form to satisfy urge of worshiping the Gods through this kind of Rituals.  Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is most probably originated from the mythological story about Kali, Chandi and Chamunda1.  It is most interesting to note that, that worshiping of Bhadrakali had been performed without any aid from the upper cast people (Brahmins), the process of this ritual totally simplified for according to the capability of the existing poor people.  The most significant part of this ritual is the painting that is created on the floor by some members of lower cast people.  Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is widely practiced in some areas of Kerala.  It has been told that the most expertise quality of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is located in the prosperous village ‘Vailkkam’ in the district of Alleppey.  The iconographical representation of Bhadrakali, though followed the scripture, but the localized transformation and deviations are worth noticing2. There are several places in Kerala where Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is depicted and offerings to the “Goddess Devi” are made. Being an art practitioner and curious to understand the undercurrents of practicing an art form which has deep social involvement, in late 1989 it happen to arrange the ritualistic perfor­mance of local form of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’at my residence. Beginning with this experience, occasionally I met with several performances and I made a close study further. In this essay I may try to explain the stylistic development and social impact of the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’in various angles.

It would be not out of place to mention that Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is a very traditional form of Art which has its mention in the‘Shilpa Shashtras’3 as ‘Dhuli Chitra’, is mainly known as ‘Rangoli’ in this age which is restricted in designing of different kind of motifs on the floor. The uniqueness of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’has in this fact that there is hardly any reminiscence of such figurative painting in Dhuli Chitra, with such a large dimension. The Bhadrakali ‘kalam’thus would be one interesting form of folk art which is still popular and practiced in India, particularly in Kerala. 

To explain simply, ‘kalam’4 is a traditional performing art form in which the images of Gods and Goddesses are made with use of color powders during ceremonial occasions like temple festivals and local festivals of Kavus5. Also this a type of worship which popularly known and used to perform in devotees residences. Either this form of art is being performed along with other major performances or separately the form of ‘kalam’ in a residence of a devotee. The ‘kalam’ is known with the name of deity of whom the image is drawn using powder colors. There are several types and varieties of ‘‘kalam’’s exist in Kerala.  ‘kalam’ezhuthu is a traditional performing art form which has importance of both a performance and of strong impact of a visual art tradition. It has historical and traditional importance which prevailing since the Sangha period (Namputhiri 201).  One of these types of most popular image drawn by the devotees is the images of Goddess Bhadrakali, which is on discussion in this essay.    
Religious milieu of Kerala in past was always a very orthodox one. (Damodaran 231) The caste system had been followed with extreme strictness which laid strength rulers on the Non-Brahmanical caste, mainly the Vaisyas and Sudras from entering the temples in these areas.  The strictness had reached to that height, this people were not even allowed to cross the ‘Gopuram’ or the outer boundary of the temples.  Thus large push of Hindu population was deprived of their right to worship their own Hindu Gods and Goddess inside the temple.  The society put them into a separate enclave with the stigma of untouchables.  This unfortunate people had found a way out to worship their Gods and most probably that could explain the emergence of different forms of Folk ritualistic cult in India, including the Bhadrakali ‘‘kalam’’. The Brahmanical Gods like Shiva, Vishnu and others were mostly worshiped by Brahmin priests6. But some minor Gods and Goddesses those who do not find a very important place in this temples, are generally adopted by this village folks. 
According to the Hindu iconography Devi Durga adopted ten forms to destroy evil forces in the shape of demons (Graves 335). Among these forms, Kali and Durga are most popular in Hindus. Beside these forms there are some more images of Kali which are not very often worshiped. Bhadrakali is one of such forms. The lower caste people of the Hindu Society thus began to worship the Bhadrakali in their own typical way.
The Socio Religious System in Kerala
The socio religious system of India is mostly oriented by mythology, most of the iconographical representation of Hindu Gods and Goddesses are based on the description of ‘Dhyana Mantras’- Stanzasin Sanskrit for chanting every day for prosperity – praising the Lords - which have been referred in the Puranas, Sometime this mythological stories are localized according to the need and taste of the place.  So the forms are also affected by the caste and taste of the worshipers. In Kerala, the mythological characters are variously represented through different kind of Art forms. There are several studies by different authors in which referred about these kinds of existing forms. Mrs. Pupul Jayakar has referred some iconographic representations of this kind of images painted on cloth in South India. She mentions some of the depiction of representation of Goddess Bhagavati on the cloth, which is mainly done in Kalahasti and Nagapatinam of Andhra Pradesh. It is interesting to note that the Bhagavati is painted with ten arms and wearing a check patterned cloth (Jayakar 135). The Bhadrakali ‘kalam’of Kerala has a very close resemblance to the Bhagavati with eight arms and also wearing a cloth. 
In Kerala and on the Kanneri’s coast, Tulue tribe worship ghost and other spirits which is sometime has some resemb­lance with the Gods. These Gods or Bhutas are represented with elaborate ornaments. According to some author the worship of Bhadrakali, Bhagavati could be associated with this type of worshiping of mellowalent spirit. In South India large numbers of Bhagavati images are found in wood carvings. The vehicle of Bhadrakali in the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is definitely a descendant of the masked gods and demons which adorn the walls of the popular village shrines in Kerala. Mrs. Pupul Jayakar informs that in one such image, she has found a Goddess with eight arms; the hands are ended with protruding fengs. Different forms of Bhagavati are worshipped as per Hindu ideologies all over India.  Chamunda is worshiped in South-India with an Iconography where she is riding on a human header ‘Vahana’.  In Kerala, Devi Chamunda has eight arms.  Thus it is very conspicuous that most of the ‘Devi Murtis’ in Kerala are with eight arms.  In Bhadrakali ‘kalam’Devi Bhadrakali is represented in eight arms.  But there are some examples were they did not confirm strictly to an eight armed Bhadrakali iconography.  In Bhadrakali’’kalam’’ the number of arms varied according to this size and taste of the artist and the patron.  At least in one occasion one had experienced to see a Bhadrakali’’kalam’’ with thousand and eight hands.  Several years ago Kerala Lalit Kala Academy organized a visual performance of ‘Bhadrakalikalam’, which composed all those arms in the two sides of the torso with an immense sense of balance.  But such examples are very rare cases. 
The backward section of Hindu Society, there fore had chosen the Bhadrakali as their Goddess.  There is lot of evidence in Kerala to prove that Bhadrakali was initially worshipped exclusively by the Brahmins.  But a very interesting ritual of worshiping Bhadrakali in Kodungallur could be a very important clue to relate it with the tribal or lower caste people.  The abusing filthy words are used as one of the rituals to worship the Bhadrakali in Kodungallur.  The exhibition of the nakedness of the worshiper is also a part of the ritual. This ritualistic cult has a significant resemblance to the worship of Bhutas or Ghosts among the tribal people.  Thus it could lead of tribal worships.  The low caste population of Bhadrakali as their Goddess might have combined some of the features from the tribal mellowalent spiritual images.   The ‘Bhadrakalikalam’ was restricted in the Brahmanical temples, but only with the reformation in the temple rules by King Shri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma in 1936,7  the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’was allowed inside the temple along with the lower caste artists.  The acceptance of the untouchables inside the temple made them a part of the Hindu Society both socially and ideologically.  There is no wonder that they would like to register their right by painting their ritual cult of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’inside the temple.   Their acceptance inside the temple gradually reduced the need of a substitute for the temple deity.  The Bhadrakali kalm was thus gradually loosing its place and importance in the low caste society of Kerala. The traditional caste system which has the source of the invention of their art form became almost meaningless due to the reduction in the strictness of the caste system in the modern society.   The professional Bhadrakali ‘kalam’painters do not find their patrons other than the temple festivals to do this ritual and thus they are not left with any other way but to take up some other jobs. 
The current scene is that the right of drawing and perform the related rights are with the people associated with temple premises. They are belonged to lower casts and known in various names in different parts of Kerala. It found that the families dedicated to perform this kind of art are settled near the locations where this form of art is widely appreciated by the society.  The performers are known as Theeyattu Unnikal, Kallattu unnikal or as Theyyam Padikal, which depends up on the location where they are settled.
Mythological Background of Bhadrakali.
The mythological story has variations from place to place according to the localization and the addition in the story part.  In the South, most of the Aryan mythological stories are given some Dravidian impact.  So the Aryan Gods are also given some time a Non-Aryan form with its grotesque form.  On the other hand many original Dravidian deities were adopted by the Aryans when interaction took placed between two cultures.  It resulted to the creation of many more new forms of deities. For instance the terrible forms of the cult of Shiva in his aspects as destroyer became very popular in South India7.   The image of Natraja is definitely a contribution of South Indian Culture.  The Gopura(m)s of the Dravidian architecture are equally embellished with this kind of demonic forms which have their roots in the mythology of Hindu sect.  The ‘Shakti’ or ‘Kali’, mythological story started with Sati the daughter of Daksha who was married to Shiva.  Sati was a symbol of feminine devotion and chastity became the main cause of Shiva’s terrifying form of Nataraja8.  Sati was re-incarnated in a form of Parvati in the next birth and Shiva and Parvati was happily married. The creation of Shakti to eliminate the peace of the heaven is supposed to be from the original source of Parvati’s energy.  Thus all the Shakti Murtis(images) are, according to the mythology the different forms of Shiva’s spouse to fight to these evil forces.  Shri Shri Chandi there is an elaborate narration of the mythological stories about the origin of Kali Chamunda, Chandi and Durga.  Many other forms like of the regional and local characteristic Bhavani, Sheravalli, Shyama, Bhadrakali and so on have satisfied the demands of Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern India Respectively (Munshi 433).  The mythological stories behind the Bhadrakali to win a battle over the Demon Darika, is also a regional version of the original story of Shri Shri Chandi.  The story of Bhadrakali thus correspond the mythological story of Shyama or Kali from the North and North-Eastern India.  Darika was a ferocious Demon who created panic with the sages who requested Shiva and the other Gods to save them from Darika.  Thus Parvati rebelled a ferocious form Bhadrakali whose power was reinforced by other Gods too. In a fierce battle Darika was killed but as a Raktaviej. (Blood battle).  Each drop of the blood of this demon could give rise to many more demons. Bhadrakali had to swallow the last drop of the blood of Raktviej Darika to present the menace.  The blood thrust of Bhadrakali made her almost mad who could not cool down her own anger and the thirst of blood.  This Shiva had to come on the way of Bhadrakali, who stepped on the body of Shiva which brought back the sense of ferocious Bhadrakali. Bhadrakali turned again to her sober and beautiful form of Parvati.  
Localized Iconography of Bhadrakali
The iconography description of Bhadrakali is available in different ancient scriptures.  The experts in this field like Shri Gopi Nath Rao has also mentioned and given the iconographic details of Bhadrakali, in his book, Elements of Hindu iconography.  In this discussion of Devi Murti’s he narrates the story of the Devaki’s seventh child.  According to him the seventh child who was a girl, was one of the incarnations of Durga.  He quotes a stanza which was used in her pose: Oh most revered Durga! Womb of Gods, Ambika, Bhadrakali, Avenger Goddess with many names , the man who repeats at morning, non evening, the secret names shall assuredly obtain all his wishes” (Rao 136) .
In different parts of India, Shakti or Durga is worshiped as the killer of Demons.  Devi Durga is represented both in South Indian temples and in Bengal in a calmer and repose posture.  For example the famous relief on the wall of ‘Mandapa’ in Mahabalipuram’ shows Durga without any expression of anger or fear on her face.  But the Kali Murti’s or Kali images are generally represented in grotesque forms.  According to Gopi Nath Rao, the destruction of Mahishasura is allegorical.  The Padma Puran8 says in the Swayam Bhava-Manvantara, Mahishasura was killed by Vaishnavi on the Mandra Giri.
But the representation of iconography of Bhadrakali is different from Durga.  According to the scriptures, Bhadrakali has eighteen hands and fierce appearance.  She has three eyes.  The attributes for Bhadrakali are the Akshamukha, Trisula, Khadga, Sruva, Chandra, Bana, Dhanus, Shamkha, Padma, Khamandalu, Dandu, Shakti, Agni, Krishnagina, and Water.  Other hands expressed some traditional mudras adapted from sculpture tradition.  In the scriptures it has been described that she is seated in a chariot drawn by four lions.  It is very interesting to note that the iconography of ‘Bhadrakalikalam’ in Kerala is not created on the above prescription of the iconography.  The painters of ‘Bhadrakali kalam’ generally follow the local mantras which is sung by the singer at the time of the ritual of painting. 
വാളാല്‍ വയറു പിളര്‍ന്നു പിളര്‍ന്നും
എല്ലുകടിച്ചു നുറുക്കി നുറുക്കി


വില്ലൊരുകയ്യില്‍ ശരമൊരുകയ്യില്‍
വിളിശംഖ് ചക്രമൊരുകയ്യില്‍
വാളൊരുകയ്യില്‍ നല്ലോരുമാനുഷനുടെ തലയെരു കയ്യില്‍
Bhadrakali has been described in this with three eyes and the mother symbol of the Heaven, Mirth and Earth.  She has taken the form of Bhadrakali only to punish the Demons and save the worshippers from the tyranny of the demons.  The attributes are not exactly corresponds to the description of the ancient scriptures.  In the localized version of iconography, she has an arrow, a Bow, A Shankha and Shri Chakra in her four hands.  Other four hands hold a sword, the trishul, the trunketed head of Darika and the eighth hand is holding a Bowl to prevent the dropping the blood on the ground.  Thus the variation of eighteen handed to eight handed Bhadrakali image.  Though in the scriptures Bhadrakali is described to have a beautiful face, in Bhadrakali’’kalam’’ she is represented as fearsome to correspond the song they sing at the time of Bhadrakali kalm.  It describes as follows:- 
ദാരികവീരാ പോരിനുവാടാ
എന്നലറി വിളിച്ചും


വാളാല്‍ വയറുപിളര്‍ന്നു പിളര്‍ന്നും
എല്ലുകടിച്ചു നുറുക്കി നുറുക്കി
Here fearful battle with Darika is described with the almost violence in this song.  Her battle cry, her ruthless killing of the Darika, by putting her sword in the stomach and lastly to decorate herself hideously with the intestine of the victim.   The Bhadrakali of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’turns to be almost into a ‘Pishachini’ (witches) who also had eaten the bones and flesh of Darika.  The Bowl which is storing the blood of Darika was also drunk by her.
In the scriptures as a ‘Vahana’9 or vehicle, lion driven chariot are mentioned. On the contrary ‘Bhadrakalikalam’ represents ‘Vetal’ as the Vehicle of Bhadrakali.  Vetal is one of the Bhutas and on attendant of Shiva.  Some other noticeable icono- graphical details in the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is two very long teeth in the shape of the tusk of the Vahana.  She wears a very colorful cloth to cover her waist to the feet, but remain naked on the torso.  The protruded tongue is red with the color of blood; the flowing unbound hair shows her anger and vigorous movement at the same time. 
Though, the whole painting is treated in flat plane except the conical projection of two breasts.  These projections are achieved by use of rise and refined rise which become a very new addition to the iconographic element of Bhadrakali ‘‘kalam’’.  In spite of her fearful appearance she is decorated with enough of jewelry. The figure of ‘Vetal’10 is also equally interesting in character. That is also represented in the same velocity as the image of Bhadrakali. Wild eyes of Bhadrakali express anger, the eyes of Vetal are mainly impassive.  Her non divine species is symbolized by two horns over her two ears.  She is carrying Bhadrakali on her shoulder at the same time holding a club on her hand.  The surprising element is the use of the complexion of Bhadrakali and Vetal is that while Vetal and Darika’s head was a more natured complexion of a human being.   On the other hand Bhadrakali image is coloured with non heavenly green color.  Further it would be worth while to mention that in the state of  Bengal, Durga  images has the color of the Vetal and Darika, in contrast the Mahishasura is always represented in the same green color used as  the complexion of Bhadrakali in ‘Bhadrakalikalam’.   It would not be wrong to guess the tribal or non-Brahmanical by interchanging the complexion of the Goddess and the demons; the tribal and Non-Brahmanical people have tried to overcome the inferiority complex of their dark complexion.  The localized iconography of Bhadrakali could be traced in the aboriginal deities of these ages.  In and around Kerala there were different kinds of aboriginal Non-Brahmanical population who mainly used to worship their own God as they were never allowed to worship Brahmanical Gods which remain always an allurement for the lower caste people.  Thus it is no wonder that they tried to combine the iconographic elements of the both sides into one. 
The Rituals
A customary ritual is preceded by the ‘Bhadrakali kalam’.  In the room or on the courtyard a ceremonial lamp used to be placed before the starting of the painting and which is followed by the blowing of Shamkha11.a While the pattu of the Ganapati Paducka are being performed and accompaniment of Chenda11.b and Thimila, 11.c the two percussion musical drums of Kerala are used Ganapati Paduka, 12 the ceremonial placement of the coconut, decorated along with some offerings. After the playing of Chenda and Thimila, the Shamka is again blows which is followed by the ‘Ganapati pattu’ in the form of a song.13 
In the Ganapati Pattu, the prayer of Ganapati or Ganesh is generally narrated in Malayalam.  This is a typical Hindu Ritual to be performed before any auspicious activity.  After the Ganapati pattu, the ‘Guru’ or the master starts the ‘Bhadrakali kalam’.  He begins   with a ‘Brahmasutra’ or plumb line in the middle of the upper part of the space. First the base color of the face is spread over the floor which is marked by the basic forms of the circle for the three eyes -Convex lines for eyebrows and upper lines of the eyes and two red spots for the nose which is small pyramidal projection, is made  with the powdered color.  The upper lip and the toung is painted with red and which is again painted with white lines to depict the shape of the teeth and the two molar are drawn like two curved moustaches at the end of the upper lip. After this the color of the face is drawn.  The back ground of the face is made more clear with the black hair at the two sides of the contour   and the hallow disc around the head.  In the same process the artist or the master painter gradually keeps on covering the different parts of the painting from top to the lower part.  It is very interesting to note that only after finishing the detail works and intricate designing of the face he continues painting in the lower part but leaves the three circles for the eyes unfinished.
Though the whole painting is flat in treatment except a small protrusion on the nose, the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’painter always give elevated relief on the two breasts of Bhadrakali. The projection are made by stuffing of raw paddy in the right side and rise on the left14 (from the ‘viewers’ side).  Thus projection of the breasts is more religious in nature than aesthetic accomplishment. The artists follow the ‘Brahmasutra’ all along to maintain the phonology of the organic structure.  The whole process of painting takes more than twelve hours.  It has been all ready mentioned that the Bhadrakali ‘kalam’has varied motives of designed and also painted in different sizes.  The above mentioned painting is 15 foot x 10 foot and painted inside the room.  There is lot of examples of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’measuring more than 64 x 64 foot and shows more intricate and skillful handing of colors and design.  The Vehicle of Bhadrakali the ‘Vetal’ is painted following the same process and which shows almost the same methodology The projection of the nose is also made like that of the Bhadrakali’s.  The drawing of the breasts shows one interesting variation as it is painted in a profile and in two different sizes. Most probably two indicate the different of species in this case.  After the completion of the figures of Bhadrakali and Vetal, the rectangle empty space is covered with a color generally white rise powders.  The rectangular space again demarked with straight lines to give it an illusion of frame.  Some times the interior part of the margin is decorated with spiral motives resembling the size.
The Shilpa shastras and the prescription of religious performance in Hindu tradition always says ‘Chakshudan’15 or which though literally means the putting of the sight in the eye but it carries a metamorphic implication of life.  It is believed that after ‘Chaksudan’ or ‘Kannauthurappickal’ (opening the eyes) the picture transform into an image.  The Bhadrakali ‘kalam’painter follows the same tradition by putting three black spots as the pupil of the eyes as the finishing touch of his all creation. 
Bhadrakali ‘kalam’painters prepare colors themselves from difficult indigenous sources.  The pigments are mainly collected from earth and vegetables which had their mentions also in the Shilpa texts the white color is prepared from rise due to its auspicious nature.  Kerala being the rise eater as staple food and rise is regarded as a symbol of prosperity.  After grinding of the rice, then it is stained thoroughly to avoid larger particles in it.  Turmeric is the main source of yellow color.  Same process is followed to get yellow.  The red color is achieved by mixing lime juice (Calcium Carbonate with water) with the turmeric powder and left some time in the sun.  The sun heat give lime diluted turmeric, a reddish tint.  But it doesn’t turn into totally red until the pigments are pressed thoroughly by two hands.  After this it becomes almost dark red.  For Indian red the brick or roof tiles are ground.  Fresh leaves are dried in the sun and powder is made out of these green leaves for the green pigment.  For the outline and contour black color is used.  The rice husk is burned   to certain temperature to turn into a carbonic state.  This carbon is thoroughly ground to get black pigment.  Within these six basic pigments ‘Bhadrakalikalam’ painters also develop some other color by the mixture of two or three pigments.  Among the mixed color pink pigment is generally used by the artist who is achieved by mixing white and red.  
This is very interesting to note that these colors are generally symbolic in nature rather than representative. The use of green for the complexion of the Bhadrakali image is definitely an anti Brahmanical approach which doesn’t conform to the iconographic description of scriptures Green complexion is generally attributed to the demons.  It would be worth while to refer the Mahishasura Mardini images of Eastern India always show the Mahishasura with green complexion (Mukherjee 221).The iconography of Devi Murties also describe the whitish or Pinkish complexion of Devi (Rao142). The ‘Bhadrakali kalam’ painters use just the reverse showing the Vetal and Darika in Aryan complexion and the Bhadrakali is green.  Red is very predominant colour in the whole composition beside white.  The cloth which is covering the lower part of Bhadrakali, is painted in red by accentuating the redness with pink pole-ka-dots (round dots).  The red is also carefully balanced on the lips, tongue of Bhadrakali and Vetal and the round disc behind the head of the Bhadrakali image (Devine hallow).  The unbound flowing hair of the Bhadrakali image is not only heightening and projecting the figure but also it symbolically communicating the fierceness and destructive aspects of Bhadrakali.  The whole background of the painting is covered with white rice powder, which is playing a role both aesthetical and ritualizing painting.  It was already mentioned above the symbolic auspicious quality of rice in the like of Keralites which must have been conformed in the background of the Bhadrakali ‘‘kalam’’.
Musical Accompaniment 
These are basically three types.  Namely Drums, Symbols and blowing instruments. The first group includes the Thimila, Chenda and Veecku Chenda.  Chegila and Ilathalam are the cymbals to accompany drums.  Kombu and Kuzhal come under the blowing music.  All these instruments are harmoniously played after the completion of the painting.  This is known as ‘Panchavadyam’16 Bhagavatipattu follows the Panchavadyam with the Shamkha announces the end of the song and the start of the Bhadrakali pattu.  In the Bhagavati and Bhadrakali pattu mainly praises are sung.  The last part of the song, the singer begs the blessing of Bhadrakali for the benefactor and mankind in general.  After the ritual of blessing, starts the removal of the Bhadrakali ‘‘kalam’’.  The shamkha is again blown and followed by Panchavadyam, while the painter removes the colored powders with the help of a broomstick made up of Supari flower (Arakkanut flower).   The removal begins from the lower part and ends with the removal of three eyes, top part of the Bhadrakali ‘‘kalam’’.  The collected color pigments are regarded as the good sign for the family or the benefactor and are put on the forehead as tilak (ceremonial mark of sandal wood paste).
The Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is just one of the numerous folk forms of paintings in India which is being followed the tradition from the unknown period.  We have the mention of Dhuli Chitras in our old Shilpa texts but hardly any reminiscence of a full form of paintings at that style is found anywhere except in Kerala in the Shape of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’.  The traditional Dhuli Chitra is mainly remained as floral design on the doorsteps or on the courtyard in some parts of India.  But a full fledged iconographical representation of this dimension we can see only in ‘Bhadrakalikalam’.  Besides its religious and ritualistic importance we have seen its importance in determining a social position of a group of people who are so much appeared by the higher class of Hindu society.  One could even a judge the depiction of Bhadrakali ‘kalam’as a challenge to the Bourgeois society of India.  Thus Bhadrakali ‘kalam’has different aspect as a painting other than its aesthetical quality.
As a painting form it deserves an appreciation for its free hand handling of the pigments which sometimes covers the area of 3600 square foot.  The painters uses only a Brahmasutra-Central line as the basic structure of the Drawing, But the rest come spontaneously and freely in their hands.  Sometimes intricate designs are used with enormous skill and with the sense of design.  Though basically the painting is linear in treatment, but also it shows on immense sense of color in organizing the space in terms of colored planes.  The forms though repetitive thus discursiveness of the symbols  are lost but sometimes some creative artiest of this group of painters could add some new things in these symbols. ‘Bhadrakalikalam’ therefore is a superb example of religious and aesthetical expression of a class, who were not allowed to express their religious faith or religious creativity with the same kind of permissiveness of the higher class society but ultimately they found their own way to expose themselves to the world of Rasika. 
1. Kali, Chandi and Camunda -Three different versions of ferocious image of Devi Durga.
 “- Kâlî also known as Kâlikâ is the Hindu goddess associated with empowerment, shakti. The name Kali comes from kâla, which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva. Since Shiva is called Kâla—the eternal time—Kâlî, his consort, also means “Time” or “Death” (as in time has come). Hence, Kâli is the Goddess of Time and Change. Although sometimes presented as dark and violent, her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilator of evil forces still has some influence. Various Shakta Hindu cosmologies, as well as Shâkta Tantric beliefs, worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. She is also revered as Bhavatârini (literally “redeemer of the universe”). Comparatively recent devotional movements largely conceive Kâli as a benevolent mother goddess. Kâlî is represented as the consort of Lord Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing. Shiva laid in path of Kali, whose foot on Shiva subdues her anger. She is time manifestation of other Hindu goddesses like Durga, Bhadrakali, Sati, Rudrani, Parvati and Chamunda. She is the foremost among the Dasa Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses.
 Chandi - or Chandika is the supreme Goddess of Devi a (Sanskrit: Devîmâhâtmyam, also known as Chandi or Durga Sapthashati. Chandi is described as the Supreme reality who is a combination of Mahakali, Maha Lakshmi and Maha Saraswati. Later in the Murti Rahasya she is described as Maha Lakshmi with eighteen arms (Ashtadasa Bhuja Mahalakshmi) bearing weapons. 
Chamunda  also known as Chamundi, Chamundeshwari and Charchika, is a fearsome aspect of Devi, the Hindu Divine Mother and one of the seven Matrikas (mother goddesses). She is also one of the chief Yoginis, a group of sixty-four or eighty-one Tantric goddesses, who are attendants of the warrior goddess Durga. The name is a combination of Chanda and Munda, two monsters whom Chamunda killed. She is closely associated with Kali, another fierce aspect of Devi. She is sometimes identified with goddesses Parvati, Chandi or Durga as well. The goddess is often portrayed as haunting cremation grounds or fig trees. The goddess is worshipped by ritual animal sacrifices along with offerings of wine and in the ancient times, human sacrifices were offered too. Originally a tribal goddess, Chamunda was assimilated in Hinduism and later entered the Jain pantheon too. Though in Jainism, the rites of her worship include vegetarian offerings, and not the meat and liquor offerings”.
2. There are several places in Kerala where Bhadrakali ‘kalam’is depicted with influence of local gods and goddesses. The population of Hinduism developed a culture to produce methodology to connect their beliefs with their requirements on day to day requirements. There are parables and local transformations of the major and popular form of the image related with the deity they are praying. Mainly the performance is made in Shiva Temple premises during festivals but it has place in temples of other deities during ceremonial occasions and residences of devotees as it a public art and method for worship. 
3.  Shilpa Shastras-Shilpa Texts- is  a general term used to note various Hindu texts that describe art forms, through which the standards for religious Hindu iconography been made, prescribed other things such as the proportions of a sculptured figure, as well as regulatory measuresof Hindu architecture. “Sixty-four such arts or crafts, sometimes called bâhya-kalâ “external or practical arts”, are traditionally enumerated, including carpentry, architecture, jewelry,  farriery, acting, dancing, music, medicine, poetry etc., besides sixty-four abhyantara-kalâ or “secret arts”’ which include mostly “erotic arts” such as kissing, embracing, etc. (Monier-Williams s.v. úilpa).While the fields are related, Shilpa Shastras explicitly deal with sculpture - forming statues, icons, stone murals, etc. Vastu Shastra are concerned primarily with building architecture - building houses, forts, temples, apartments, etc.”
4. Kavu- Kavu is a place of worship other than Temples for Hindus in Kerala. The selected area of the house hold land is permitted for natural growth of vegetation like a forest and the idols of favorite deities are centrally placed there. Majorly the idols are of Naga images. Yaksha, Yakshi, and some other aboriginal known deities are placed over there but Naga images are popular among them. Kavu has a social relevance in the life of Kerala.    
5. Kolam is the popular name of Rangoli in general public and it a popular folk art from India. Rangoli or Kolam are decorative designs made on the floors of living rooms and courtyards of homes during Hindu festivals. They are meant to be the areas to welcome and place for the Hindu deities. The symbols and centuries old have been passed on through the ages, from one generation to the next, so that kept both the art form and the tradition alive. The patterns are typically created with locally available materials, including colored rice, dry flour,(colored) sand or even flower petals and dried and powdered leaves. Rangoli is practiced in various states in India and popular I names-in Tamil Nadu it known as Kolam, Madanae in Rajasthan, Chowkpurna in Northern India, Alpana in West Bengal, Aripana in Bihar, chowk pujan in Uttar Pradesh and many more.
The purpose of Rangoli is decoration, and it is thought to bring good luck to the bearer. Design-depictions may also vary pace to place as they reflect traditions, related with folklore and practices that are unique to each area or society. As a traditional practice it is done by women, but often it seen that all people involve generally. Practice is of drawing showcased apart from welcoming of morning time in front the house gates, during occasions such as festivals, auspicious observances, celebrations of marriages and other similar milestones and gatherings.
“Rangoli designs can be simple geometric shapes, deity impressions, flower and petal shapes (appropriate for the given celebrations), but they can also become very elaborate designs crafted by numerous people. The base material is usually dry or wet granulated rice or dry flour, to which Sindoor (vermilion), Haldi (turmeric) and other natural colors can be added. Chemical colors are a modern variation. Other materials include colored sand and even flowers and petals, as in the case of Flower Rangolis.” 
6. The term Brahmana is described in encyclopedia is described as follows “Brahmin also called Brahmana;  is a term used to designate a member of one of the four varnas (castes) in the traditional Hindu societies of Nepal and India. Brahman, Brahmin, and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self. Brahmin (or Brahmana) refers to an individual, while the word Brahma refers to the creative aspect of the universal consciousness. The English word brahmin is an anglicised form of the Sanskrit word Brâhmana. In the Smriti view, there are four “varnas” or classes: the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and the Shudras (outcastes, chandalas)”. 
7. The meaning of Shiva-Siva, is “auspicious one”. Shiva is a major Hindu deity, worshiped by all Hindu Society and considered as the Destroyer or Transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. Lord Shiva is considered as the most powerful god in Hinduism. According to the Shaiva tradition of Hinduism, Shiva is the Supreme God and has five important duties: as creator, preserver, destroyer, fact of concealing, and revealing (as to bless). He is regarded as one of the five primary forms of God in smarta tradition. Who focus their worship upon Shiva, among followers of Hinduism are called Shaivites or Shaivas (Sanskrit Œaiva), one of the three most influential denominations in Hinduism. Shiva is also commonly known as Rudra. Lingam is the iconic representation for the worship of Shiva. Rudra is described as an omniscient yogi (Sanyasi), who follows an ascetic life on Mount Kailash, as well as a householder with a wife familiar as Parvati. He has two sons- Ganesha (Ganapati) and Kartikeya(Muruga). Shiva is worshiped in many benevolent as well as fearsome forms. His image is visualized as immersed in deep meditation, some other times with his wife and children or as the Cosmic Dancer in occassions. Also he was portrayed in fierce aspects and he is often depicted as slaying demons and evil forces.
8. “Nataraja or Nataraj,The Lord (or King) of Dance;  is a depiction of the god Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for the god Brahma to start the process of creation. A Telugu and Tamil concept, Shiva was first depicted as Nataraja in the famous Chola bronzes and sculptures of Chidambaram. The dance of Shiva in Tillai, the traditional name for Chidambaram, forms the motif for all the depictions of Shiva as Nataraja. He is also known as “Sabesan” which splits as “Sabayil aadum eesan” in Tamil which means “The Lord who dances on the dais”. The form is present in most Shiva temples in South India, and is the main deity in the famous temple at Chidambaram.
The sculpture is usually made in bronze, with Shiva dancing in an aureole of flames, lifting his left leg (or in rare cases, the right leg) and balancing over a demon or dwarf (Apasmara) who symbolizes ignorance. It is a well-known sculptural symbol in India and popularly used as a symbol of Indian culture.
The two most common forms of Shiva’s dance are the Lasya (the gentle form of dance), associated with the creation of the world, and the Tandava (the violent and dangerous dance), associated with the destruction of weary worldviews - weary perspectives and lifestyles. In essence, the Lasya and the Tandava are just two aspects of Shiva’s nature; for he destroys in order to create, tearing down to build again.” Encyclopedia.
8. Padma Puran- Padma Purana. One among the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, which hasto five parts.
Sage Pulastya explains to Bhishma about religion and the essence of the religion in the first part of the text followed by the second part describes in detail about Earth (Prithvi). Description of the cosmos is given, including creation, and description of India (Bharata Varsha) in the third part. The fourth part explains the life and deeds of Rama. The fifth part is in the style of a dialogue between Shiva and his consort, Parvati which deals with the unavoidable knowledge about religion.
Dating to roughly between the 8th and the 11th centuries, the Padma Purana is considered as one of the Mahapuranas. It is noted that “there are a number of later Jaina works also known as Padma-purana, and also dealing with the life of Rama. These include the Padma-purana (Balabhadrapurana) or Raidhu (15th century), the Padma-purana of Somadeva (1600), the Padma-purana of Dharmakirti (1612), the Padma-purana of Bhattaraka Candrakirti (17th century).” 
9. Vahana- Vâhana is a sansskrit word means the mechanism or living organism that which carries, that which pulls or moves denotes the being, typically an animal or mythical entity, a particular deva is said to use as a vehicle. “In this capacity, the vâhana is often called the deity’s mount. Upon the partnership between the deva and his vâhana is woven much iconography and mythology. Often, the deva is iconographically depicted riding (or simply mounted upon) the vâhana. Other times, the vâhana is depicted at the deity’s side or symbolically represented as a divine attribute. The vâhana may be considered an accoutrement of the deity: though the vâhana may act independently, they are still functionally emblematic or even syntagmatic of their “rider”. The deva (or devî, who will have her own, unique vâhana) may be seen sitting or on, or standing on, the vâhana. They may be sitting on a small platform called a howdah, or riding on a saddle or bareback. Vah in Sanskrit means to carry or to transport”. 
10. “A vetala (Sanskrit vetâla - a ghost-like being from Hindu mythology. The vetala are defined as spirits inhabiting corpses and charnel grounds. These corpses may be used as vehicles for movement (as they no longer decay while so inhabited); but a vetala may also leave the body at will. Gray (undated: c2009) provides a survey of chthonic charnel ground accoutrement motif such as skull imagery in the textual tradition of the Yogini tantras and discusses ‘vetala’ (Sanskrit).”
11. Musical Instruments related with Bhadrakali ‘kalam’performance, 
a. Shankha. also spelled and pronounced as shankh and sankha, is a conch shell which is of ritual and religious importance in both Hinduism and Buddhism. The shankha is the shell of a species of large predatory sea snail, Turbinella pyrum, which lives in the Indian Ocean. In Hinduism, the shankha is a sacred emblem of the Hindu preserver god Vishnu. It is still used as a trumpet in Hindu ritual, and in the past was used as a war trumpet. The shankha is praised in Hindu scriptures as a giver of fame, longevity and prosperity, the cleanser of sin and the abode of Lakshmi, who is the goddess of wealth and consort of Vishnu.
b. The Chenda is a cylindrical percussion instrument used widely in the state of Kerala, and Tulu Nadu of Karnataka State in India. In Tulu Nadu it is known as Chande. The chenda is mainly played in Hindu Temple Festivals and as an accompaniment in the religious art forms of Kerala. The chenda is used as an accompaniment for Kathakali, Koodiyattam, Kannyar Kali, Theyyam and among many forms of dances and rituals in Kerala. It is also played in a dance-drama called Yakshagana which is popular in Tulu Nadu of Karnataka. It is traditionally considered to be an ‘Asura Vadyam’ which means it cannot go in harmony. Chenda is an unavoidable musical instrument in all form of cultural activities in Kerala.
c.Thimila- Timila, thimila or paani, is an hour-glass shaped percussion instrument used in Kerala, South India. It is made of polished jackwood, and the drumheads made of calfskin (preferably taken from 1-2 year old calf) are held together by leather braces which are also twined round the waist of the drum. This mechanism helps in adjusting the tension and controlling the sound, mainly two: ‘tha’ and ‘thom’. It is one of the constituting instruments in Panchavadyam. It is also a major percussion instrument used in sree-bali, sree-bhootha-bali and related temple rites. A Panchavadyam performance is begun with Timila Pattu and ends with the Timila Idachal thus making timila a very important component of the traditional Kerala percussion ensemble.
d. Other instruments- Veekku Chenda, Ilathalam and Chengila.
12.Ganapati Padukka-The ceremonial placement of offerings- decorated coconut, Flowers, Fruits, dry fruits, rice scales, Sweets, Sugar cake etc. 
13. Ganapati pattu is the song sung by the performer during in the beginning of the performance to invite presence of Lord Ganapati while praising him.
14. This is a symbol of fertility, Kali is the mother of the Mankind, and she feed her children through her breasts. Raw rice means the fertility. The refined rice means it is ready to feed her children- the legend says. As per some artist some time the Bhadrakali Kalm artists used approximately up to 50Kg of Paddy to make the mounts of breasts of the image them draw according to the size of the image they draw.
15. Chakshudan- Giving of eye. Chakshu is the synonym of Eye in Malayalam and Dan means offering, giving etc. Similar practice conducted in the traditional set up of Mural Painting in Kerala. The eye is drawn at the end of painting which is known as kannuthurappickal.   
16. Panchavadyam- (Malayalam), literally meaning an orchestra of five instruments, is basically a temple art form that has evolved in Kerala. Of the five instruments, four — timila, maddalam, ilathalam and idakka — belong to the percussion category, while the fifth one, kombu, is a wind instrument – Playing of all five rhythmically is known as Panchavadyam.  Sime times the performers replace one or two instruments (Veekku Chenda, Chenda or Kuzhal) depends up on availability of instrument and artists. 
Works Cited
Graves, Robert. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. London: Hamlyn Pub., 1968. Print.
Jayakar, Pupul. The Earth Mother. New Delhi, India; New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin, 1989. Print.
Majumdar, R. C., Pusalker A. D., Majumdar A. K., and Munshi Kanaiyalal Maneklal,. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1990. Print.
Mookerjee, Ajit. Folk Art of Bengal,. [Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1939. Print.
Rao, Gopinatha T A ,. Elements of Hindu Iconography,. New York: Paragon Book Reprint, 1968. Print.
Visnunamputiri, Em Vi. Phoklor Nighantu. Tiruvanantapuram: Kerala Bhasa Instittyutt, 1989. Print.

 Mental Health: Modern and Vedantic Views


According to certain statistical accounts eighty percent of the mental illnesses are psychogenic. Because actual cause of the trouble is in the mind, it often cannot be reached by purely physical treatment. The cause has to be determined by psychological analysis. Our joy and suffering, wisdom and folly, strength and weakness, depend very much on the condition of the mind
Mind according to Vedanta is something distinct from the physical body on the one hand and the spiritual self on the other. The spiritual self is the knower; the mind is not the knower, mind is an object of knowledge, mind is called antakarana, an internal instrument. Mind is not an integral part of the body but it is an integral part of the spiritual self. They are connected but yet are distinct. Similar observations can be seen in Vedanta. 

Cultivation and related income in the Artha¿¡stra

Pushpadasan Kuniyil

Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra discusses how to utilize the required resources for the welfare of the people and all in all prosperity of the state.  Arthaśāstraputs forward the cultivation as the most important livelihood of the society.
Agriculture and other related concepts are discussed in the 24th chapter named Agriculture officer (Sitādhyakṣa) of 41st prakaraṇa in Adhyakṣa Pracāra of 2nd Adhikaraṇa in Arthaśāstra.

Rāmāyaṇa Plays of Bhāsa

Dr. N. Vijayamohanan Pillai 

Rāmāyaṇa is a brilliant blend of poetry, myths, history, fables and inspiring thoughts. This unparalleled epic of the world contains the insight of ancient great thinkers of India which direct a person in achieving the ultimate aim of human life.  Rāmāyaṇa plays down the technique of attaining the four puruṣārthas - dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa - which enable human beings to attain pleasure and perfection of life. The narration revolves around the life and character of Rāma who upheld the highest ideals of humanity. 

The Creative Genius in Sree Narayana Guru


Sree  Narayana Guru is a great soul who opened the gates of freedom for the oppressed and downtrodden sections of the society by establishing revolutionary changes in the social background of Kerala then. In this modern age, we see the grace of a sage and the greatness of a “Guru” co-existing in Sree  Narayana Guru. He transformed the society with the help of his asceticism and lofty thinking. His messages rose out of his benevolent heart and helped many in attaining spiritual liberation. Materialist, Social   revolutionist, Philosopher and Poet, Sree   Narayana Guru combines within himself such powers that could inspire people of all ages.

Eco Feminism

Shamshad Begum.R

Nature is only valued in terms of its  usefulness to us. It is the nature of Humans to interfere with the environment and economic activities are responsible for long scale alterations for natural eco systems. Natural resources  are very important for development and human progress. The study of environment has been given inadequate attention in the study of history with the growth of environmental history as an active field; it become necessary to revisit the question of the role of human initiative in history As John R Mc Neill defines it ‘ Environmental history is the history of the mutual relations between humankind and the rest  of nature.

Ajitamahāantra: Treatise on Vāstuvidya

Soumya. K

Sanskrit is rich in secular literature. Technical sciences in Sanskrit are generally embedded in the six Vedāngas and the Upavedas. Vāstuvidya or Sthāpatyaveda, the ancient Indian architecture is taken to be an Upaveda of Atharvaveda. This branch of ancient Indian science has got a rich literature including the Āgamas.

Historical and Cultural Aspects Reflected In Ashtamimahotsava Prabandha


Ashtamimahotsava prabandha is a narration of Ashtamimahotsava celebrated in Vaikom Sri Mahadeva Temple. This prabandha is one of the most beautiful Champu Kavya among the Kerala Champu literature. The name of this Prabandha is somewhere denoted as Ashtami prabandha and somewhere as Ashtamimahotsava prabandha.As the definition of Champu kavya, this one is also in Champu style ie; in the order of a mixture of prose and verse.

Influence of Buddhism in the Social Health Environment of Kerala

Buddhism represents the way of compassion. The Buddha manifested a complete compassion and is respectfully seen as the compassionate protector of all beings. He taught that for those who wish to follow his Path should practice loving-kindness, not to harm the life of all beings - not only to protect mankind, but also to protect animals and vegetation. As in the other parts of India, Buddhism had penetrated in to Kerala also. 

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व्यवहारे शास्त्रविषयेषु साहित्ये वा प्रयुक्तानां शब्दानां साधुत्वं सर्वैरिष्यते। तत्र निर्णेतारः वैयाकरणाः स्यु। किन्तु आलङ्‌कारिकै कविप्रयोगाणां साधुत्वचिन्ता कृता दृश्यते। तत्र चिन्तायां कालक्रमेण परिणतिरपि नितरां वर्त्तते। एवं काव्यप्रयुक्तानां शब्दानां साधुत्वचिन्तायां कीदृशः परिणामः इत्यस्मिन्‌ प्रबन्धे समालोच्यते।

कविप्रयोगाणां साधुत्वचिन्ता आचार्यात्‌ भरतादारभ्यानुवर्त्तते भामहवामनाभ्यां काव्यदोषाणां निरूपणे कृता शब्दसाधुत्वचिन्ता तयोः ग्रन्थयोः विद्यते। तदुत्तरवर्त्तिनां महिमभट्‌ट मम्‌मटविश्वनाथानामपि कृतिषु शब्दप्रयोगस्य विशेषाः विचिन्तिता। न केवलं आलङ्‌कारिकैः, वैयाकरणैरपि यथासन्दर्भं कविप्रयोगानुद्घृत्य तेषां साधुत्वविमर्शः कृतः। यथा आलङ्‌कारिकाणां चिन्ताधारायां तत्सिद्घान्तानुसारेण परिष्कारः सम्पन्नः तथा वैयाकरणानामपि कश्चन मतभेदः दृश्यते। वैयाकरणैः कविप्रयोगाणां कीदृशी शब्दसाधुत्वचिन्ता प्रवृत्ता इति प्रथममवलोक्यते।

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व्याकरणम्‌, मीमांसा,न्यायम्‌,ज्योतिंषम्‌ इत्यादीनां, शस्त्राणामध्ययनस्य विरसतादूरीकरणार्थं, पिपठिषूणां तात्पर्यसंवर्धनाय च प्रारब्धः शास्त्रकाव्यमिति नामाना प्रसिद्घः काव्यसरणि। केरलेदेशोऽपिइमां काव्येशाखां सुतरां परिपोषयतिस्म। अस्मिन्‌ काव्यविभागे. केरलीयानां योगदानं परिगणनीयं भवति। ब्रह्मदत्तनारायणेन विरचितं सुभद्राहरणम्‌, वासुदेवकविना विरचितं वासुदेवविजयम्‌, इलत्तूर्‌ रामस्वामिशास्त्रिणा विरचितं सुरूपराधवम्‌, मेल्पुत्तूर नारायण भट्‌टेन विरचितं धातुकाव्यम्‌कोटुङ्‌ङल्लूर्र विद्वान् इलयतम्पुरान्‌ महोदयेन विरचितं हेत्वाभासोदाहरणकाव्यम्‌, पेरुन्तानं नारायणद्विजवरेण विरचिंत सुगलार्थमाला इत्यादय ग्रन्था काव्य विभागेऽस्मिन्‌ प्रामुख्यमर्हन्ति।

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भार्गवरामः .के.के

कलते इति, कलयति इत्यस्मात्‌ इति वा व्युत्पत्या भ्वादिगणस्थ कल शब्दसङ्‌ख्यानयोः इति धातुना, चुरादिगणस्थ कल गतौ सङ्‌ख्याने च इति धातुना वा, अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्‌(3-3-18) इति सूत्रेण घञ्‌ प्रत्ययप्रोजने कालशब्दो निष्पन्नो भवति।वैशेषिका कालं क्रियाव्यतिरिक्तं द्रव्यविशेषं मन्यन्ते (अपरस्मिन्‌नपरं युगपत्‌ चिरं क्षिप्रमिति काललिंगानि)(वैशेषिकसूत्रम्‌ 2-2-6)जन्यानां जनक कालो जगतामाश्रयो मतः इत्यस्ति न्यायमते कालगणना ।

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डॉ. सि. एन्‌. विजयकुमारी

भारतस्य स्वतन्त्रताप्राप्ति देशीयसमुद्‌ग्रथनं चेति -यमिदं साधयितुं भारतीयानां दार्शनिकचिन्तावैभवमद्वितीयं स्थानमावहति स्म। भारते आस्तिकनास्कि भेदेन दर्शनानां वैविध्यं वैचित्र्यं च समुकल्पितमभवत्‌ अस्माकमाचार्यवर्यै। तेषु सांख्यन्याययोग वेदान्तपूर्वमिमांसाउत्तरमीमासा इति षड्‌दर्शनानि प्रचुरप्रचाराण्यभवन्‌। आस्तिकेष्वेतेषु दर्शनेषु अन्यतमः अद्वियीयश्च भवति अद्वैतवेदान्त। अद्वैतवेदान्तकाहलेन सम्पूर्णं भारतं अजागरयत्‌ श्रीशङ्‌करभगवत्पादः। आत्मानुभवेन युक्तिचिन्तया च इयं अद्वैतपद्घति लोके प्रचुरप्रसृत समजायत। पाश्चात्यपौरस्त्यैरनेकैदार्शनिकै उत्तरोत्तम्‌ प्रकीर्तित वेदान्त सर्वकालानुकूल एवेति तत्रत्यसिद्घान्तैरवगम्यते। मेक्स्मुल्लर्‌ महोदयेन अद्वैतस्य मायासिद्घान्तमधिकृत्य इत्थं परामृष्टं वर्तते। मानवविचाराणामुत्तुङ्‌गसीमायामेव मायासिद्घान्तः प्रतिष्ठापितः इति।

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श्रीदास्‌. ए.बि                                             

सर्वेषामपि आस्तिकभारतीयानां जनानामस्ति विश्वासो सकलप्रपञ्चसृष्टि कर्तृत्वं ईश्वरे वर्तते इति। अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवः, आत्मन, आकाशः सम्भूत चेति स्मृति श्रुतिश्च तत्रोपजीविव्यत्वेन अङ्‌गीकृतम्‌।

Our contributers

Dr V Vasudevan is readaer in Nyaya, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Regional Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 
Babu.K is Assistant Professor of Painting, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady.
Dr.H.Sylaja is Associate professor and HoD of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Pushpadasan Kuniyil is Assistant Professor in Sanskrit Sahitya, Govt Sanskrit College, Pattambi.
Dr.N.Vijayamohanan Pillai is Associate Professor in Saskrit General,Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Dr.V.Asaletha is associate professor in Malayalam, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Regional centre, Thiruvananthapuram
Shamshad Begam R is assistant Professor in Hindi,Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Regional Centre, Thiruvananthapuram.
Soumya K is  Research scholar, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Krishnaveni is Research scholar, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Soumya C.S is Research scholar,  University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram
Dr.Yamuna K is Associate professor in Vyakarana, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Dr.S.Vijayakumari is Associate Professor in Sanskrit General, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady
Bhargavaraman.K is a Lecturer (Contract)in Vyakarana, , Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Regional centre, Thiruvananthapuram
Dr.C.N.Vijayakumari is assistant Professor in the Department of Sanskrit, University of Kerala.
Sreedas A.V is Research scholar, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady

Sunday, 12 May 2013


July December 2012

Editor’s note

Human knowledge originated from word. The greatness of the linguistic philosophy of Bhartṛhari is based on this fact.  the derivation  and comprehension of sound has been treated as ultimate truth by Ṛṣis who considered this sound as the source of  soul itself. Human existence is inspired by this soul. This hidden or vague inspiration results in the production of the word. In fact, the Vedic hymns have viewed “vāk” in the form of universal principles. Bhartṛhari vindicated this idea  intellectualy and grammaticaly.
Bhart¤hari had explicated the original form of sentence (vākya) adopting an integral state or akha¸da, and enunciated this integral sphoṭa as ultimate truth. Later, this “vākya sphoṭa” has been judged as the unit of language by linguists. Bhart¤hari does not accept the four levels of “vāk”. This process could not find either in the vedas or in traditional views. On the other hand, he adopts ‘the sound’ that has three parts, viz; “paśyanti”, “madhyama” and “vaikhari”. Thus “śabda’s” zenith is grammatical which is said to be the most sacred and divine element than any other art.

Dr. M.Manimohanan.

Sanskritic Tradition as a Tool to Pedagogy
Dr.Dharmaraj Adat

The Sanskrit verbal adjective saṁskṛta- may be translated as “put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated”.  It is derived from the root saṁ-skar- “to put together, compose, arrange, prepare”, where saṁ- “together” and (s)kar- “do, make”. As a term for “refined or elaborated speech” the adjective appears in Epic and Classical Sanskrit. The language referred to as saṁskṛta “the cultured language” has by definition always been a “sacred” and “sophisticated” language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- “natural, artless, normal, ordinary”. 


Āyurveda Dīpikā Grammatical Issues (Based on Sūtra-Sthāna)                                    
Dr. K. Yamuna

Āyurveda, the Indian medical science, developed by ancient Ṛṣis is said to be originated from Atharva Veda. Caraka  is believed to be one of the founders of Āyurveda. Agniveśa  who was one of the disciples of sage Punarvasu Ātreya  composed Agniveśa Samhitā, which was later  edited and reconstructed  by Caraka and it came to be known as Caraka Samhit¡. The Caraka Samhitā was again  revised by Dṛḍhabala in 400 AD and subsequently Cakrapāṇidatta published a commentary on Caraka Samhitā, called Caraka Tātparya-Tīka or Āyurveda Dīpikā, which was done in the eleventh century (A.D. 1066).  Caraka Samhitā is a huge treatise on ancient Indian medicine. It comprises of one hundred and twenty chapters distributed in eight sections (eight divisions called  aṣṭa sthānas)  and the first section, Sūtra-Sthāna deals with  the general principles and fundamental concepts of Āyurveda described in thirty chapters.  

Contribution of Bhāmatī to Advaita Pholosophy 
Dr.S.Geethamony Amma

Vācaspati Miśra, the author of Bhāmatī, (841-900 A.D) was a multisided philosophic genius. He devoted himself to the task of setting forth authoritative expositions of all the orthodox systems of Indian philosophy. This had brought him the title  ‘Sarvatantrasvatantra’, an  honour conferred only on  rare literary prodigies.

Vedic Concordence in Nārāyaṇīyam of Melputtūr Narayanabhattatiri
Dr. Ambika. K.R.
  Nārāyaṇīyam is a great Stotrakāvya takes a high place in Sanskrit literature both as a poem and as a devotional hymn. The author Melputtur Narayanabhattatiri (born in 1560) is one of the most brilliant stars among the Sanskrit scholar poets of  Kerala, he was not only a devotional poet but he was a great grammarian, veteran scholar in Mīmāṁsa and other śāstras. Above all he was a gifted scholar in Vedas. His works numbering about forty and they can be classifies into four groups: 1) śāstric or Technical works 2) Prabandhas or narratives 3) praśastis or panegyrics and 4) stotras or devotional hymns. But his most noteworthy contribution is to Sanskrit hymnology and among this the Nārāyaṇīyam is the magnum opus.

The Anomaly Between Logic And Experience in The Functioning of Perception (Pratyaksha) in Nyaya-Vaiseshika
 Dr. G. Ramamoorthy
Pramana śāstra  (Epistemology or theory of knowledge) is a very important branch of study in Philosophy. This deals with the problem concerning with the origin, nature, means, validity, limits and conditions of knowledge. 
 According to nyāya-vaiśeṣika the term pramāṇam is defined as ‘uncommon cause of valid knowledge’. Hence pramāṇam (Means of knowledge) is very important and a defect in pramana will reflect in knowledge, like a defect in a measuring yard affects the accuracy of measurement.

The Sāṁkhya as Portrayed in the Mahābhārata
Dr. K.V. Suresh
In the history of religious beliefs in ancient India, philosophical and speculative thought played a very important role. The University of Life, so rich in its complexities and so deeply interconnected with the complex modern life, was a heritage of the Vedic schools of thought in the later phase. There existed various philosophical schools of which Vedanta, Sāṁkhya and Lokāyata could be considered as representative of the three major schools of thought. In its all-comprehensive dimension the Mahābhārata compares with, and owes its existence to, the Vedas. While the Vedanta school was theistic (believing in the existence of God), the Lokāyata school was materialistic and atheistic (believing in the existence of only those things whose existence could be seen, heard, felt, tasted and smelt). The Sāṁkhya School was compromise between the other two schools. 

The Contribution of Sanskrit Literature in the Writing of Kerala History

Kerala is an inseparable part of India. The culture of Kerala has always enriched the broader culture of India; The peculiarities of geographical location and natural features have contributed towards the development of Kerala’s distinct identity.

The Philosophy of Patañjali 
Anupama M.P
Patañjali, a highly intellectual person who worked in philosophy and Grammar. The Sanskrit grammar has also philosophical aspects.  He put forward this aspects of grammar introduced a separate branch of philosophy, namely yoga philosophy.The Mahābhāṣya  of  Patañjali  n the elaborated Aṣṭādhyāyi of pāṇini is one of the three most important works inSanskrit grammar. The Mahābhāṣya symbolizes the perfection of the discipline in grammar. 

Methodology and Parameters in the Literary approach of  Prof. M.P.Sankunni Nair
Ajesh T.V.

M.P.Sankunni Nair (1917-2006) was a unique genius in the field of literary criticism in Malayalam. He was not popular nor well-known though he had definite idea about Eastern and Western Literary theories. He used Eastern and Western Literary devices for his literary analysis which is not the one given him more reputation as a critic, but the specimen of his works are concerned with the criticisms which are concentrated on the intellectual background of those given literary texts.

Rasamādhurī: An Analytical Study

Rasamādhurī written by Ottur Unni Namputirippad is a collection of nine poems. As the name suggests the work shares with readers the sweetness of bhaktirasa.  This book contains a number of beautiful poetic imaginations. It can be seen that unlike his Malayalam poems verbal embellishments also have an important role in the aesthetic enjoyment of this work. The work fresh in its form and content, marks a new bhāvukatva in Sanskrit poetry. Poet’s multi-faced knowledge also has made a harmony in his poems. This paper enquires the striking elements in Ottur’s poetry analyzing his work –Rasamādhurī

Aṣṭamīmahotsavacampu of Melputtur Nārāyaṇabhaṭṭa

Melputtur Nārāyaṇabhaṭṭa is one of the greatest scholar poets that Kerala has ever produced. He was a grammarian and a great authority on Vedas, Mīmāṁsa, Nyāya, Epics and Purāṇas. He has written several works on diverse subjects literary as well as scientific. These include Stotras, śāstra works, Praśastis, Muktakas and Campūs. His contribution to the field of Sanskrit Camp£ literature is much noteworthy. More than twenty five Campūs, generally called as Prabandhas, are attributed to him. Most of them are written with a purpose to present on the Kerala Sanskrit theatre, Kūttu or Pāṭhakam.   There is a story that several of them were composed at the special request of his friend Kuṭṭanñceri  Iraviccākyār whom he refers as Ravinata. And so almost all these Prabandhas have their theme adapted from Itihāsas and Purāṇas. 

A Study on the Semblances Between Quantum Physics and Advaita
Sruthi. N 

The modern era is in need for a scientific orientation of spirituality and a spiritual orientation of science. Science and spirituality are complementary to each other, and hence for the last three decades, efforts have been made to find parallels between the two disciplines. Some overlapping areas of interest have been detected between science and transcendentalism; physics and metaphysics; medical sciences and mediation,; quantum physics and mysticism, concentrates on the semblances between quantum physics and Advaita. 

Dr. P.V. Rajee

Ancient Indian jurisprudence is known as ‘Vyavahāra’ Dharmaśāstra - a term derived from the Vedās, Purāṇas, Smṛtis and other ancient works. Dharma means the science of righteousness and is derived etymologically from the root dhṛ = to hold. There is no corresponding word in any other language for dharma.

डा.एम्.एस्.मुरलीधरन् पिल्लै 

मोक्षसामग्र्यां भक्तिरेव गरीयसीति भगवत्पादानां वाक्यप्रामाण्यादेव भक्त्यद्वैतवेदान्तयो सुतरां सम्बन्धोऽस्तीति सिद्ध्यति। मोक्षं प्रति ारणसामग्रीषु भक्तिरप्यो। अर्थात ार्यारणभावसम्बन्धो मोक्षभक्त्योर्मध्ये वर्तते। चित्तवृत्तिविशेष एव भक्ति, अखण्डार्थचित्त-वृत्तिविशेष ब्रह्मज्ञानम्। यस्य भक्त्यात्मि चित्तवृत्तिरिस्त, तस्य श्रवणादिद्वारा अखण्डार्थचित्तवृत्तिरपि सुलभसाध्या भवति। न चित्तवृत्तिं विना भक्ति, न ब्रह्मज्ञानम्। विलक्षणचित्तवृत्तिविशेषौ द्वावपि।

कथकली नाट्यशास्त्रं किं अवलम्बते? पर्यालोचना 

भारतीय नाट्यनृत्तनृत्यादिषु विविख्यातिं सम्प्राप्ता नाटपा थली। एषा तु 'कूटियाट्टं’ नाम केरलीय लापस्य परिष्कृताविषर:। दृश्य - दृश्यश्रव्यादि त्रिमानदर्शनसहितोऽयं (तौर्यत्रिकं) नाटविशेषः। आङ्गि - वाचि - सात्वि - आहार्यादि चतुर्विधाभिनयसङ्केतैः निबद्धे अस्मिन् कलारूपे सत्वरजस्तमो गुण पात्रप्रदर्शनाय समुचितमाहार्यं चोपयुज्यते (पच्च, कत्ति, करि, ताटि इत्यादयः)। मुखे वर्णालङ्कारैस्समं 'चुट्टि’ नाम्ना प्रसिद्धमुखालङरमपि प्रयुज्यते। नेत्रयोस्तथा मुखपेशीनां च सूक्ष्मचलनै ल्लनाटप्रपञ्चमिस्मन्द्रष्टं शक्यते।

महाभाष्यानुसारेण स्त्रीपुन्नपुंसकविचारः 
श्रीहरिवर्मा. के 


पाणिनीयविकरणप्रत्ययाः - एकमनुशीलनम्। 

‘‘व्याक्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते शब्दाः अनेन’’ (म. भा. प. पृ. 60) इति व्याकरणम्। वि आङ पूर्वक कृ धातो करणार्थे ‘ल्युट्’ प्रत्यये व्याकरणशब्दस्य निष्पत्तिः भवति। व्याकरणं नाम शब्दानुशासनम्।